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Heathen's Master book of write Book 1

History on Witchcraft
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Song of the Goddess

Edited by Crimsonwolf

Witchcraft History

Time Line

 

672-735CE- Bede writes History of English, a history of Christianity in England. His book is referred to in the Malleus Maleficarum

 

775-790- Catholic church taught that Witches did not exist. It was considered  heresy to say that they were real. A capitulary from Saxony states: 'If anyone, deceived by the Devil, believes after the manner of the Pagans that any man or woman is a witch and eats men, and if on this account he burns [the alleged witch]... he shall be punished by capital sentence."

 

906- Regino of Prum, the Abbot of Treves, wrote the Canon Episcopi. It reinforced the church's teaching that Witches did not exist. It admitted that some confused and deluded women thought that they flew through the air with the Pagan Goddess Diana. They said that this did not happen in reality; it was merely some form of hallucination.

 

circa 975 - Penalties for Witchcraft and the use of healing magic were relatively mild. The English Confessional of Egbert said, in part: "If a woman works witchcraft and enchantment and [uses] magical philters, she shall fast  for twelve months.... If she kills anyone by her philters, she shall fast for seven years." Fasting involved consuming only bread and water. 

 

Circa 1012-first persecution of "heretics" in Germany

 

1095- Pope Urban II proclaims First Crusade

 

circa 1140- Gratian, an Italian monk, incorporated the Canon Episcopi into canon law.

 

circa 1203- The Cathar movement, a Gnostic Christian group, had become popular in the Orleans area of France and in Italy. They were declared heretics. Pope Innocent III approved a war of genocide against the Cathars.

 

1227- Pope Gregory IX established the Inquisitional Courts to arrest, try, convict and execute heretics

 

1252- Pope Innocent III authorized the use of torture during inquisitional trials. This greatly increased the conviction rate.

 

1258- Pope Alexander IV instructed the Inquisition to confine their investigations to cases of heresy. They were to not investigate charges of divination or sorcery unless heretics were also involved.

 

1265- Pope Clement IV reaffirms the use of torture.

 

1233- First Papal ordinance directly dealing with witchcraft- Bull by Pope Gregory IX (Ugolino, Count of Segni), to Conrad of Marburg, bidding him to proceed against the Luciferians. In July 30 of that year, Conrad of Marburg is murdered on the highway in pursuit of his duties.

 

1258- Bull by Pope Alexander IV (Rinaldo Conti), to Franciscan Inquisitors, bidding them refrain from judging any cases of witchcraft unless there was some very strong reason to suppose that heretical practice could also be amply proved.

 

1321- The last known Cathar was burned at the stake in 1321 CE.

 

1398-University of Paris declares that the pact with the devil is not merely magic but heresy

 

1428 to 1450- Witch trials of Brianqon, in the Dauphin6. where 167 local people are burned as witches

 

1431-Trial of Joan of Arc includes allegations of witchcraft. She was burned on May 30 at Rouen

 

1484- December 9 The Bull of Innocent VIII, decreeing rights to "be empowered to proceed to the just correction, imprisonment, and punishment of any persons, without let or hindrance, in every way as if the provinces, townships, dioceses, districts, territories, yea, even the persons and their crimes in this kind were named and particularly designated in Our letters."

 

1486/87- Publication of a code for witch-hunters Malleus Maleficarum(Hammer of Witches)  written by Sprenger and Kramer. Maximilian I, Emperor of Germany and King of the Romans signs papers in Brussels giving permission to these two to carry out duties, and commands cooperation with them.

 

1490 King Charles VIII issues edict against fortunetellers, enchanters and necromancers

 

1493-1541Life of Paracelsus  a physician who claimed that everything he learned came from an old witch.

 

1515-1588 Weyer, Johan. Born in Brabant (Belgium). German physician. Believed most witches were melancholy mentally disturbed old women, incapable of harm. Believed that the belief in witchcraft was caused by the devil. In 1563 wrote De Praestigiis Daemonum. Was forced out of Netherlands by the Catholic Governor, Duke of Alba. His book was denounced by Jean Bodin.

 

1529-Trial at Luxeuil by the Inquisition

 

1530-1616- Remy, Nicholas. French Lawyer fighting against witches. In 1595 writes Demonaltry and sites 128 cases

 

1532-Issue of the Carolina Code. This code imposed torture and death for witchcraft. The code was technically adopted by the 300-odd small independent states which then comprised the Holy Roman Empire

 

1542-Statute of Henry VIII against witchcraft

 

1547-Repeal of statute of 1542 in reign of Edward VI

 

1557-Toulouse witch trials: forty accused witches burned

 

1563-Statute of Queen Elizabeth against witchcraft

 

1563-Council of Trent resolves to win back Germany from Protestantism to the Catholic Church: intensification of religious struggles and persecutions

 

1566-The first Chelmsford witch trials

 

1566 to 1625-King James VI of Scotland a.k.a. James I of England and "author" of the King James Bible

 

1579-The Windsor witches; also the second Chelmsford trials

 

1580-Jean Bodin, French judge, writes De la Demonomanie des Sorciers . Claims that those who denied the existence of witches were themselves witches.

 

1582-St. Osyth Witches of Essex (case tried at Chelmsford)

 

1584-Publication of Discovery of Witchcraft, by the sceptic Reginald Scot suggesting that maybe witches don't really exist.

 

1589-Third Chelmsford witch trials

 

1589-Fourteen accused witches at Tours appeal to King Henry III who, is in turn, accused of protecting witches

 

1590-William .V begins witch hunt in Bavaria

 

1590 to 1591The North Berwick Witches tried.

 

1593-Warboys witches of Huntingdon

 

1597-Publication of Demonology by James VI of Scotland (later James I of England)

 

1597-Case of the Burton Boy (Thomas Darling) in Staffordshire

 

1604-James I statute against witchcraft

 

1608- Publication of Compendium Maleficarum, by Francesco Maria Guazzo

 

1610- Execution of accused witches in the Netherlands ceased, probably because of a book written by Weyer's 1563

 

1611-The Basque Trials of 1611. They were trials where the Spanish Inquisition wanted to  burn witches as heretics, when an inquisitor by the name of Antonio Salazar de Frias stepped in. After much deliberation and methodical research into the stories of witchcraft he decided that the men and women charged were under a form of mass hysteria. He further found that "witches" were not harmful, merely delusional and needed help, not condemnation.

 

1612-Lancashire witch trials

 

1616- A second witch craze broke out in Vizcaya. Again an Edict of Silence was issued by the Inquisition. But the king overturned the Edict and 300 accused witches were burned alive.

 

1618-Start of the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) during which the witch hunt throughout Germany was at its height

 

1622-Jamestown ,Virginia, Goodwife Joan Wright arraigned, she was not clearly tried

 

1625-Start of general decline of witch trials in France

 

1631-Friedrich Spee von Langenfield, a Jesuit priest, wrote "Cautio criminalis" (Circumspection in Criminal Cases).   He condemned the witch hunts and persecution in Wurzburg, Germany. He wrote that the accused confessed only because they were the victims of sadistic tortures.

 

1632-Death of the Prince-Bishop of Bamberg marks the end of the terrible persecutions in this large principality ( 1609-1632)

 

1645-Case of the Faversham witches, Kent Witchfinder-general Matthew Hopkins and the Chelmsford (or Manningtree) witch trials

 

1645 to 1692-The New England witch trials, including that of Margaret Jones

 

1646-Death of Matthew Hopkins, author of Discovery of Witches, by tuberculosis

 

1647-Publication of Discovery of Witches, Matthew Hopkins

 

1647-May 25th  Windsor CT, Alse Young hung. She is acknowledged as the first person executed as a witch in North America but there is little, if any, documentation on this, however

 

1648-Massachusetts Bay executed its first witch in 1648- Margaret Jones, and like Jane Hawkins and Anne Hutchinson, she was a midwife and lay healer

 

1649-Case of the St. Albans  Witches, Hertfordshire

 

1652-"Dr. Lamb's Darling"- the trial of Anne Bodenham Trial of the Wapping Witch (Joan Peterson) near London

 

1655-Last execution for witchcraft in Cologne (where persecution was less severe)

 

1657-March, Jennette Huart-and others strangled and burned as witches in Sugny, Belgium

 

1662-The trial of Amy Denny and Rose Cullender of Lowestoft who were tried as witches and executed at Bury St Edmunds in March 1662.

 

1662-The Bury St. Edmunds witch trials

 

1663 to 1728- Cotton Mather defends the trials and executions in New England.

 

1689- Cotton Mather writes Memorable Providence Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions

 

1670-Rouen witch trials

 

1674-Trial of Anne Foster at Northampton

 

1679 to 1682- The notorious Chanibre d'ardent~ affair- Louis XIV's star chamber investigates poison plots and hears evidence of widespread corruption and witchcraft. More than 300 people arrested, and 36 executed. The affair ended with a royal edict which denied the reality of witchcraft and sorcery.

 

1682-Trial of three Exeter Witches

 

1684-Last execution for witchcraft in England (Alice Molland at Exeter)

 

1692-Salem Witch Trials conducted- 5 hung on July 19 - five on August19, eight on September 22 (a dog was also executed.)

 

1712-Jane Wenham of Walkern in Herefordshire is last person convicted of witchcraft in England

 

1722-Last execution for witchcraft in Scotland

 

1736-Repeal of Statute of James I

 

1745-Last execution for witchcraft in France (of Father Louis Debaraz at Lyons)

 

1775-Last official execution for witchcraft in Germany (of Anna Maria Schwiigel at Kempten in Bavaria)

 

1782-Last witch burned in Europe.

 

1782-Anna Goeldi, hanged at Glaris in Switzerland, June 17, -1782-last execution known in Switzerland

 

1787-All witchcraft laws in Austria repealed

 

1792-Poland stops execution of witches. Important because the last trial and judicial execution in Europe itself was probably that of two aged beldames, Satanists, who were burned at the stake in Poland, 1793-, the year of the Second Partition, during reign of Stanislaus Augustus Poniatowski.

 

1830's-The church ceased the execution of witches in South America.

 

1854-Birth of  MacGregor Mathers a.k.a. Samuel Lidell Mathers, Comte de Glenstrae and Chevalier MacGregor leader of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn-this organization has probably had more influence than any other organization in the 20th century on Modern Neo-Paganism with its rituals, grimoires and rules

 

1891-1946 life of Dion Fortune, the magical name of Violet Mary Firth, a British occultist, medium and author whose books still influence modern Witchcraft and Neo-Paganism because she concluded that hostile psychic energy can emanate both deliberately and unwittingly from certain people and that one can mentally fend off such energy.

 

1863 to 1963- life of Margaret Murray who authored The Witch Cult in Western Europe and The God of the Witches

 

1884-Birth of Gerald Gardner

 

1898-Aleister Crowley joins Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

 

1899-Aradia- Gospel of the Witches written by Charles Leland

 

1900- Teacher to Crowley, Mathers is ousted from the Golden Dawn for his autocratic ways

 

1902-formation of the OTO or Ordo Templi Oreintis ( Order of the Temple of the Orient) a group devoted to sexual magic, by industrialist Karl Kellner who claimed to have learned Tantric magic from Hindu an d India tantrists. The OTO also claims they hold the sex secrets of the Knight's of Templars whose leaders were executed during the Middle Ages

 

1907-Aleister Crowley forms the Order of the Silver Star

 

1912-Crowley becomes a leader of the OTO

 

1912-Austrian anti-Semite Adolf Lanz founds the Order of the New Templars based on astrology, rune magic, worship of the God Woton, Germanic paganism, and very strangely the Kabbalah

 

1914-OTO centers are established in Vancouver and Los Angeles by a disciple of Crowley named Charles Stansfield Jones

 

1916-Birth of Stewart Farrar

 

1919-Dion Fortune joins an outer order of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn

 

1920-Joan of Arc declared a saint.

 

1920-George Elliot "Pat" Patterson III born-was later to found the Georgian Tradition of Witchcraft

 

1922-Crowley becomes head of the OTO

 

1926-Publication of The European Witch Cult by Margaret Murray

 

1926 to 1988 life of Alex Sanders-initiated into Gardnerian Witchcraft and later founded Alexandrian tradition

Montague Summers writes introductions for old books used for Inquisition praising their works.

 

1929- Dion Fortune left the branch of Hermetic Order of Golden Dawn that she was part of to found her own order, the Community of the Inner Light. At first the order was part of the Golden Dawn, but later separated from it. It continues to be based in London, but now is known as the Society of the Inner Light. It offers techniques in the Western esoteric tradition.

 

1937-Gerald Gardner returns from Ceylon and Malaya as a rubber and tea planter and customs official with an interest in knives, nudism and the super natural.

 

1939-Gardner joins a Rosicruician group call the Fellowship of Crotona through whom he purportedly meets a Witch coven

 

1946-Aleister Crowley dies an impoverished heroine addict

 

1949-Gardner publishes High Magic's Aid

 

1950- birth of Janet Owen on June 24, 1950, in Clapton, London. Later known as Janet Farrar

 

1951-Witchcraft laws repealed in England

 

1951- Harvey Spencer Lewis leaves the OTO  and founds the Mystic Order Rosae Crucis in San Jose after studying Rosicruicians

 

1954-Garnder publishes Witchcraft Today  under the pen name Scire

 

1959-Gardner publishes final book The Meaning of Witchcraft

 

1960-publication of The God of the Witches by Margaret Murray

 

1962-Raymond Buckland moves to the USA

 

1963-Gardner meets Raymond Buckland who is visiting England and Gardner's high priestess Monique Wilson  initiates him. Buckland then introduces Gardnerian Witchcraft to the USA

 

1966-Formation of the First Church of Satan by Anton LeVey in CA

 

1967-Alex and  Maxine Sanders are married and move to London. They are responsible for the creation of the  Alexandrian tradition of Wicca

 

1969-Stewart Farrar meets Alex and Maxine Sanders when Stewart's publisher sent him to interview them for a magazine article

 

1970-Farrar is initiated by Sanders on Feb. 21 in London where he meets Janet Owens who becomes his wife Janet Farrar in 1975(legally)

 

1970-December-the Farrars start their own coven

 

early 1970's-Georgian Tradition of Witchcraft develops. Founded by George Elliot "Pat" Patterson III

 

 

1971-What Witches Do by Stewart Farrar was published

 

1971-Issac Bonewits publishes Real Magic

 

1974-October-Seleena Fox establishes Circle Sanctuary

 

1975-in the spring a number of Wiccan elders from diverse traditions, all sharing the idea of forming a religious organization for all practitioners of Witchcraft, gathered to draft a 'covenant' among themselves. These representatives also drafted bylaws to administer this new organization now known as the Covenant of the Goddess. At the 1975 Summer Solstice, the bylaws were ratified by thirteen member congregations (or covens). The Covenant of the Goddess was incorporated as a nonprofit religious organization on October 31st, 1975.

 

1976-Farrars move to Ireland and hive coven. They leave Susan and David Buckingham

in charge of the old coven in England

 

1978-Circle Sanctuary incorporated as a legal church

 

1980-Georgian Church founded

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

1980- Dr. Lawrence Pazder and Michelle Smith wrote "Michelle Remembers." The concept of humans in league with Satan, which had been largely dormant for decades, was revived. Although the book has been shown to be a work of fiction, it is presented as factual, based on Michelle's recovered memories. This book is felt to be largely responsible for triggering a new Witch/Satanist panic.

 

1981-Farrars publish Eight Sabbats for Witches

 

1984-Farrars publish The Witches' Way-provided the first thorough reconstruction of the evolution of the Gardnerian Book of Shadows, as it was developed by Gardner and Doreen Valiente, including contributions by Valiente herself.

 

1984-Death of founder of Georgian tradition George Elliot "Pat" Patterson III

 

1980 to 1995- Two types of trials were held in North America, which repeated many of the same features of earlier Witch trials:  Staff at some pre-schools, day care facilities and Sunday schools were accused of ritual abuse of children. Evidence was based on faulty medical diagnoses and memories of non-existent abuse implanted in the minds of very young children. Tens of thousands of adults, victimized by Recovered Memory Therapy, developed false memories of having been abused during childhood. In about 17% of the cases, these memories escalated to recollections of Satanic Ritual Abuse. Hundreds of parents were charged with criminal acts. Almost all of them were innocent. Most of the charges involved acts never happened.

 

1985- was Dettmer v. Landon. A 29 year old inmate incarcerated at the Powhatan Correctional Center in State Farm, Virginia claimed that his First Amendment right to the free exercise of his religion, the Church of Wicca, was violated by prison officials when they stated that Wicca was not a religion and would not allow access to items that Dettmer needed to practice his faith. The court found that the prison had violated Dettmer's rights and that Wicca was indeed a religion with complex doctrines

 

1988-Death of Alex Sanders

 

1990's- Some conservative Christian pastors continue to link two unrelated belief systems:   The imaginary religion of Satan-worshipping Witches promoted by the Church during the Renaissance, and 

Wicca and other Neo-pagan religions which are nature-based faiths and which do not recognize the existence of the Christian devil.

 

1999- Conservative Christian pastors occasionally call for a renewal of the burning times, to exterminate Wiccans and other Neo-pagans. One example shows the intensity of misinformation and hatred that fear of Witches can generate. In 1999-AUG, Rev. Jack Harvey, pastor of Tabernacle Independent Baptist Church in Killeen, TX allegedly arranged for at least one member of his church to carry a handgun during religious services, "in case a warlock tries to grab one of our kids...I've heard they drink blood, eat babies. They have fires, they probably cook them..." During speeches which preceded his church's demonstration against Wiccans, Rev. Harvey allegedly stated that Witches should be napalmed. One of the Christian's signs read "Witchcraft is an abomination" on one side and "Burn the witches off Ft. Hood" on the other. 7 (Ft. Hood is a large army base near Killeen TX. A Wiccan faith group is active there.)

 

2000-death of Stewart Farrar

 

 

Crimsonwolf

Where instinct is wiser...